Energy is the driving force of human interaction with nature. Energy flows are the base of modern economies and societies, and cross borders and sectors.
IINAS research on energy addresses
- fossil energy, especially sustainability issues of unconventional fossil resource extraction (e.g. hydraulic fracturing [fracking], oil shales, tar sands)
- renewable energy, especially biomass
- high-efficient energy conversion, and energy efficiency, including sustainable consumption.
IINAS develops strategies for sustainable energy from local to global scales, and works with governmental, private sector and civil society actors in that regard.
To define sustainable energy systems, IINAS develops, uses and disseminates the GEMIS model which calculates life-cycle emissions, costs and employment effects.